As a rule, exit gases have a positive electric charge, but sometimes - a negative one. This charge does not depend on the electric potential of a car. And probably, predomination of water drops or carbon particles in exit gases influences the formation of negative or positive charges.
The clouds of positive and sometimes negative ions move at height of 10 or less meters above the ground. It seems that automobiles, especially automobiles with powerful diesel engines, produce theses clouds of ions. This supposition was proved by experiments with spatial charge detectors. It was determined that these exit gases had the strong positive charge. The exit gases of cars had the lesser charge, sometimes - positive, sometimes - negative; in some cases they were not charged at all. The exit gases of one diesel locomotive turned out to be uncharged. In special conditions ionization of exit gases played an important role, for example while removing of charge from the airplane body. In order to explain the appearance of charges in exit gases of automobiles and influence on type of theses charges, first, it was supposed that ions were formed in combustion chambers. And the type of spatial charge depended on the charge of automobile on rubber tyres towards the ground. This theory could not explain the absence of charges in exit gases of diesel locomotive with diesel engine, which had a good earthing through the rails.
As a rule, automobile with rubber tyres had a negative potential towards the ground. But while examining of spatial charges of two automobiles (when they were moving), it was determined that in both cases the spatial charges were not negative, as it was expected, they were positive. And probably, the emission of spatial gases from the exit pipes of automobile engines did not depend on the automobile potential towards the ground, and the difference of contact potentials between the exit pipe and elements of exit pipes, such as water drops and carbon particles caused it. It was well known that a waste steam in steam engines had a positive charge and it was more likely that the process of spatial positive ions formation in exit gases of automobiles had the same mechanism.
There was developed the following experiment in order to determine the type of the carbon particles charge. It was decided to examine the spatial charge of automobile exit gases when the engine worked at full power. As a rule, in these cases the indicator of electrometer moved from the maximum negative point to the maximum positive one, where the deflection of the indicator to the positive direction decreased, as the engine turn-over decreased. However, at the moment of air flap closing, the indicator of electrometer dropped to the maximum negative point and stayed there. It was observed on some examined automobiles. This fact defined that the carbon particles of automobile engine exit gases had the negative charge.
The results of these experiments match the hypothesis that the exit gases of automobile engine could be positively or negatively charged, where the type of the charge depended on the fact - what elements predominated in these gases: water drops or carbon particles.
When the automobile, especially a lorry, moved along the highway it could accumulate a significant potential, which is negative towards the ground, because of the difference of contact potentials between tyres and highway surface. It might turn out that the dragged chain for the lorry with the petrol engine would be ineffective in charge drop because of the high level of surface resistance. It was offered to drop the negative charge of lorries with the help of free movements of engine with open air flap.
The author of the article - K. Breizfield, information is developed by A.Tuktagulov (www.ionization.ru)
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