The influence of air ions on cells and bacteria
The fact, that biological effect of atmosphere ions did not depend on functioning of circulatory, vascular and nervous systems, was confirmed by experiments of Kruger and Smith with trachea, and also by the results received from researches, where was defined the influence of artificially created ions on bacterial and cellular cultures.
Studying cultures of pure cells Worden found out that the difference in reproduction speed of such cultures was statistically significant. Under the influence of negative ionization the reproduction of cells accelerated and positive ionization caused the deceleration of reproduction. Kruger and his staff investigated the influence of ions, which were created by tritium or polonium sources on staphylococcus suspensions in drops of distilled water of 10-3-10-1 cm3 sizes. The time of ionization was 4-6 hours. These authors defined the increase of dying off speed, which was caused by direct effect of positive or negative ions on cells.
For example, in operated experiment in 4 hours the number of alive bacteria in 5x10-2cm3 drop decreased from 108 up to 106. At positive ionization the number of alive bacteria decreased from 108 up to 104 in 4 hours, at negative ionization - from 108 up to 104 in 2 hours. The influence of air ions increased, when drops were shaken in order to facilitate the contact of bacteria with air ions.
Moreover, as the result of the smallest electrostatic wind caused by ions, there existed an increased evaporation of drops. Fuerst and Vol made similar experiments where they used the spores of Neurospora crassa for control of objects and polonium generator of ions, which created the concentration of ions about 105 ions/cm3.
It was defined, that spores were destroyed quicker when there was the influence of positive or negative air ions for some hours. Prat and Bernard reported their work with Renicillium notatum and showed the influence of inhibition on their growth.
The influence of air ions on growth of plants.
Many authors had studied the influence of "atmosphere electricity" since 1748. This year Abbot Nolet described his experiments where he "electrified" the plants putting them under the charged electrodes. He observed the acceleration of growth. Grandiew (1879) observed, that plants which were not subjected to atmospheric electricity influence, because they were placed in the wire net earthed box, showed the decrease of weight on 30-50 % in comparison with examined plants.
There was observed the specific content of sugar and starch. Lemstrem (1902) put the plants under the influence of air ions, he placed them under a wire supplied with edges and connected to a high voltage source (1 meter above the ground level, current of ions 10-11 :.10-12 A/cm2), and he defined the increase of weight and length on more than 45% (for example, carrots, peas, cabbage).Hesterman (1910) ionized plants with the help of copper wires connected to a high voltage source at height of 2,5 meters. He observed the increase of weight up to 25%. Genricy (1919) determined that the assimilability of plants in ionized atmosphere was improved.
Recently Kruger and his staff proved that the growth of plants accelerated in the atmosphere with artificially increased concentration of positive and negative small ions. They found out that oats seeds reacted on positive and negative ions (concentration about 104 ions per cm3), their length increased on 60%, fresh and dry weight increased on 25:..73 %.
The chemical analysis of overground parts of plants showed the increase of protein, nitrogen and sugar content. For example, the barley lengthened approximately on 100%; but the fresh weight did not change greatly, although the dry weight evidently increased (up to 660%) and according to it the content of protein, nitrogen and sugar was also increased.
Worden also reported the results of experiments with seeds of plants. He found out that the germination of green beans and green peas was earlier if the levels of ions of any polarity were increased. The final percentage of germinated seeds was lower at negative ionization in comparison with control group; the germination in positively ionized group and control group was identical. While growing of seedlings the control group and positively ionized plants continued their growth, while negatively ionized plants died.
The influence of air ions on organisms.
During last decades there were made the great number of experiments concerning the bioclimatic influence of atmospheric ions, which were described approximately in 300 publications. Tchiyavsky studied the influence of ions on various functions of body, for example, endurance, sexual activity, motor activity, growth of animals, productivity of animals, (egg-laying qualities, milkiness and etc.), force of animals, salivation, bacilli in saliva, weight of people, charge of blood cells, pulse rate, blood pressure, frequency of breath, nervous system, endocrine glands, metabolism, painlessness and wounds healing.
Tchiyavsky made the majority of his experiments with the high-grade coronary generator of ions; he found a lot of biological phenomena caused by the effect of atmospheric ions. He also admitted that these effects were reversible, if artificial ionization proceeded during long period of time. He came to the conclusion that atmospheric ions are necessary for vital processes of animals. However his experiments were objects for criticism.
Edstrem used the ion generator of Dezauer and realized that during ionization there were accelerated such processes as basic metabolism, blood pressure, skin temperature, muscular chronaxia. Negative ions caused effects, which were opposite to described ones. But the most part of these effects were correlated with special structure of "large" air ions created by the ion generator of Dezauer. And the influence of these ions was not studied yet. Edstrem noted, that all the effects were temporary and the period of their influence did not exceed time during which the person inhaled artificially created ions. Many other authors also found out this phenomenon.
According to Okod positive ions stimulated the increase of protein and level of sugar in blood, the decrease of red blood cells precipitation time and secretions of gastric juice. Miyazaby defined that positive ions decreased the content of blood serum alkali and increased the number of white and red blood cells, the level of sugar in blood, pulse rate and blood pressure.
Biza and Vaidman investigated the critical frequency of and studied the influence of atmospheric ions. Worden, Helowey, Nailzen, Harper, Ramflet and Veksler also studied this question, they investigated adrenal glands, and Sokolov studied the influence of ions on growth of malignant bodies.
On the basis of numerous researches of bioclimatic effect of atmospheric ions we came to the conclusion that ions really had the measurable influence on biological systems. It was defined that the most part of changes caused by ions occurred only during the period of ionization.
Therapeutic action of atmospheric ions
When small ions were discovered and there were investigated different bioclamatic effects of ions, ion therapy attracted a lot of scientists. In 1748 Holet studied the influence of ions created by the voltage discharge on ill people. In 150 years Achkinas and Kaspary informed that the concentration of positive air ions usually was high in the regions where the mountain sickness was distributed. Some effects of Fehna Kzermak attributed to the increase of atmospheric ions concentration with the factor from four up to ten, where the increase of positive ions was higher. He marked that in days when people sensitive to weather changes felt bad, the concentration of positive ions was much higher than the concentration of negative ones.
In 1910 Stephence came to the conclusion that when the concentration of negative air ions decreased there took place the rheumatic and nervous breakdowns. He defined that the "ion therapy" neutralized the influence of low natural concentration of ions, because in the "ion therapy" there were used artificially created negative air ions.
Dezauer and his staff made a lot of experiments using atmospheric ions as therapeutic agents. These authors defined that the influence of artificially created ions on ill people was much stronger than on healthy ones. Many other authors proofed it later. For example, people with high blood pressure had the pressure decline after the influence of ionized air, and people with normal blood pressure did not have such signs.
In many cases, ions caused the pain relief for quite long time (and sometimes for ever). It was proper to people who had an asthma, hypertension, rheumatic illnesses and various climatic disorders. However these results could not be compared with the published results of other authors, because Dezauer used the source of ions where magnesium oxide evaporation was charged by platinum wire heated up to 1200C temperature, and his ionizer produced large ions. At inhalation of these ions during 30 minutes people also inhaled about 0,4 milligrams of magnesium and platinum oxide. It is not likely that observed effects were caused by pharmacological action of these substances. Therapeutic action of artificially created air ions, could be distinguished into three groups according to their influences on diseases.
1. Diseases of respiratory tract (asthma, hay fever, stomatitises).
Schocher performed these experiments. In general negative ions had beneficial influence while positive ions had no any influence.
For example, Kornblewer defined that thirty four of fifty four patients, who had a hay fever or an asthma, felt better if the concentration of negative ions was higher in comparison with normal atmospheric level 200-600 ions per cm3 up to about 1200-2600 ions per cm3. In such conditions only one of fifteen observed patients felt better. At the influence of positive atmospheric ions (concentration - 2000-6500 ions per cm3) twenty three of thirty two patients did not feel any changes of their state, one patient felt better, and eight patients felt deterioration. Time of the influence was changed from 10 up to 50 minutes.
Malysheva-Krachavich observed thirty patients who had the repeating dairy stomatitises, influencing on them with air ions within 20-25 days. During 15-minute sessions patients were influenced by high concentration of small air ions (about 106 ions/cm3). As the result four patients did not have relapses for more than 1,5 years, fifteen patients had less relapses, and five patients had relapses in quite short periods. Six patients had the same frequency of relapses.
Dezauer, Edstrem, Wilgelmy and Saenhalls reported about the perceptible decrease of blood pressure if patients with hypertension were influenced by positive or negative ions (Dezauer) or only by negative ions (Edstrem, Wilgelmy and Saenhalls). According to Edstrem, about 75 % of patients with hypertension had the decrease of blood pressure during negative ionization. Wilgelmy defined that twenty nine patients with abnormal high blood pressure had the decrease of blood pressure on 15-45mm after the negative ionization. Six of fourteen hypertensive patients with nephritis had the reduction of blood pressure on 15-40 %. Saenhalls observed that three hypertensive patients after the negative ionization during 14 minutes had the decrease of blood pressure from 160 up to 130 (19 %), from 235 up to 203 (14 %) and from 210 up to 180 (14 %). In the same experimental conditions three healthy people had the decrease of blood pressure on 5-10 mm.
3. Management of burns and long open wounds.
Chizhevsky, Predelsky and Wordan reported about using of artificially created air ions for treatment of animals wounds.
Recently David and some others researched the influence of ions on thirty two burnt patients. Burns were influenced by air, ionized by coronary generators. In these researches there were used only negative air ions. The majority of patients were daily influenced by air ions during 20 minutes; some patients were influenced twice a day during the same period of time. Authors reported that the main part of patients had the quicker drying of burnt and ulcerated areas, and there also was observed the reduction of discharges. Moreover the period of improvement was shortened.
Also there was reported that the artificial air ionization was successfully used in postoperative cases. Malysheva-Krachevich and Minkh observed twenty patients with poorly healing postoperative wounds and 10 days influenced on them by negative air ions during 15 minutes. And the healing process was increased in every cases in spite of the fact whether wounds were directly treated or the patient inhaled the ions.
Summing all up there could be made the following conclusions that the therapeutic use of artificially created small air ions would be useful in medicine when the biological influence of air ionization on people, animals and plants would be highly investigated in view of air concentration and polarity of ions, and also the periods of exposition